Advanced grid-forming converters

Theory, Implementation, and Real-World Application

The Grid-Forming (GFM) control method for power converters has become a recurring topic among industry engineers, researchers and PhD students working with active power networks and power electronics. The GFM control concept is inspired by the operation of a synchronous power system, particularly how an electromechanical synchronous generator interacts with the electrical grid. Therefore, the GFM approach involves emulating such a physical interaction within the control system of a power converter, which doesn't mean simply replicating every single aspect of a conventional electromechanical synchronous generator in the converter's control system.

The physical approach to the GFM concept has enabled the integration of traditional power system stability control techniques into the power conversion dominion. This step is crucial for enhancing the operation and control of active power systems with high renewable penetration, FACTS/HVDC systems, electric vehicle fleets, stationary storage systems, and large electrolyzers—all them managed by power electronic-based converters. In these systems, new phenomena and interactions between power converters and the electrical grid can compromise the stability and reliability of the system if not properly addressed.

During this 3-day course, we will learn about GFM power converters control, introducing operational principles and control loops, and discussing preferred implementations. We'll review the services that GFM converters can offer to the electrical grid and see what system operators have to say about them. We will explore the complex areas of dynamic and transient stability analysis of GFM converters, providing practical examples. Ultimately, this course aims to equip industry engineers and PhD students with the conceptual and analytical tools necessary to advance their research and industrial developments in the field of GFM converters.

Additionally, this course offers attendees the opportunity to discuss ideas and proposals with experienced instructors, some of whom are pioneers of the GFM concept for power converters. Participants will learn from their field experience and discuss new trends, requirements, and opportunities in the GFM converter sector.

Form of evaluation

PhD students interested in earning a 3 ECTS certificate from Aalborg University are required to submit a report following the course. This report should demonstrate their ability to solve fundamental issues related to the modeling and control of GFM. Students must prepare a brief project report on a specific use case provided by the instructors, showcasing their proposed solutions. The instructors will review and grade these reports to determine eligibility for the 3 ECTS certificate.


Day 1: Overview of Grid forming power converters

  • Operation principle – from electromechanical synchronous to virtually synchronous 
  • Design principles and practices of control loops of GFM converter
  • Overview of the most relevant technical approaches of GFM converters

Day 2: Detailed Implementation and small-signal stability analysis of Grid forming power converter

  • Fundamentals of small-signal dynamics analysis
  • Small-signal stability analysis of GFM converters
  • Enhanced GFM controls for robust small-signal stability

Day 3: Grid-forming controls for large disturbance ride-through

  • Large-signal modeling and transient stability analysis of GFM converters
  • Transient stability analysis of GFM converters with current limitation
  • Coordination between transient stability and GFM capabilities



Pedro Rodriguez (Fellow and Distinguished Lecturer, IEEE) received his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Spain (1994 and 2004, respectively). He was a postdoc researcher at the CPES, Virginia Tech, US, at the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark and at the MIT Energy Initiative (MITie), Boston, US. He was a co-supervisor of the Vestas Power Program, Denmark (2007 – 2011). He was a director of technology on Modern Power Systems at Abengoa Research (2011- 2017). He was the head of Loyola.Tech, at Loyola University, Spain (2017-2020). From 2021, he is with the Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), Luxembourg, where he leads a unit on Intelligent Clean Energy Systems (ICES). He is also linked with the UPC as a part-time professor. He has been in the Clarivate’s list of Highly Cited Researchers in Engineering. He has co-authored one Wiley-IEEE book, more than 100 papers in ISI technical journals, and around 300 papers in conference proceedings. He is the holder of 17 licensed patents. He has participated in more than 50 projects with industrial partners and several EU projects.

Dr. Rodriguez is an IEEE Fellow and a Distinguished Lecturer for his contributions in the control of distributed generation. He has been recently entitled Honoris Causa Doctorate by the Aalborg University, Denmark. He was honored with the 2020’s Sustainable Energy Systems Technical Achievement Award by IEEE Power Electronics Society (PELS). He has served as an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics on Power Electronics, IEEE Journal on Industrial Electronics and Energies. His research interests include intelligent energy systems, distributed generation, and universal energy access.


Xiongfei Wang (Fellow, IEEE) received the B.S. degree from Yanshan University, China, in 2006, the M.S. degree from Harbin Institute of Technology, China, in 2008, both in electrical engineering, and the Ph.D. degree in energy technology from Aalborg University, Denmark, in 2013.

From 2009 to 2022, he was with Aalborg University where he became an Assistant Professor in 2014, an Associate Professor in 2016, a Professor and the founding Leader of Electronic Power Grid (eGRID) Research Group in 2018. From 2022, he has been a Professor with KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, and a Part-time Professor with Aalborg University. Form 2023, he has been a Visiting Professor at Hitachi Energy Research Center, Vasteras, Sweden. His research interests include modeling and control of power electronic converters, stability and power quality of power-electronic-dominated power systems, and high-power electronic systems.        

Dr. Wang currently serves as Executive Editor (Editor-in-Chief) for the IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics Letters and as Associate Editor for the IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics. He received 10 IEEE Prize Paper Awards, the 2016 AAU Talent for Future Research Leaders, the 2018 IEEE Richard M. Bass Outstanding Young Power Electronics Engineer Award, the 2019 IEEE PELS Sustainable Energy Systems Technical Achievement Award, and the 2022 Isao Takahashi Power Electronics Award.


Heng Wu (Senior Member IEEE) received B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (NUAA), Nanjing, China, in 2012 and 2015, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark, in 2020. He is now an Assistant Professor and Leader of Electronic Power Grid (eGRID) Research Group with AAU Energy, Aalborg University.

From 2015 to 2017, he was an Electrical Engineer with NR Electric Company Ltd, Nanjing, China. He was a guest researcher with Ørsted Wind Power, Fredericia, Denmark, in 2018, and Bundeswehr University Munich, Munich, Germany, in 2019. From 2020 to 2021, he was a Postdoctoral Researcher with Aalborg University. Dr. Wu is the Chairman of IEEE Task Force on Frequency-domain Modeling and Dynamic Analysis of HVDC and FACTS, the subgroup leader of Cigre WG B4/C4.93 “Development of grid forming converters for secure and reliable operation of future electricity systems”, the expert member of Cigre WG B4.101 “Industrial implementation and application of grid-forming energy storage systems (GFM ESS)”, and the expert member of GB grid forming best practice expert group formed by national grid ESO, UK. His research interests include the modelling and stability analysis of the power electronic based power systems. He is identified as world’s top 2% scientist by Stanford University from 2019. He received the 2019 Outstanding Reviewer Award of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS and the 2021 Star Reviewer Award of the IEEE JOURNAL of EMERGING AND SELECTED TOPICS IN POWER ELECTRONICS.


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Advanced grid-forming converters

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Practical Infos

Date and Time: 3-5 June, 2024

Place: Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST). Luxembourg Learning Centre. 7, Ënnert den Héichiewen, 4361 Esch-sur-Alzette, , Luxembourg (

Registration fees:  

  • 804 € VAT excl. (VAT 3 %) for PhD students
  • 1072 € VAT excl. (VAT 3 %)  for industry engineers

Format: In person


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