Antifungal Activity of Saponins from the Fruit Pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi against Venturia inaequalis and Botrytis cinerea
F. M. Porsche, D. Molitor, M. Beyer, S. Charton, C. André, and A. Kollar
Plant Disease, vol. 102, no. 5, pp. 991-1000, 2018
The antifungal activity of an aqueous extract (AE) and the solid fraction of a chloroform-methanol fruit pericarp extract (CME) of Sapindus mukorossi resolved in water was tested for the first time against Venturia inaequalis and Botrytis cinerea – two important fungal pathogens worldwide. In the greenhouse, a CME (1% v/v) spray significantly reduced V. inaequalis symptoms and sporulation (99%) on apple seedling leaves (P ≤ 0.05). In field trials, applications of AE (1% v/v) reduced the disease severity of B. cinerea on grapes on average by 63%. Extracts were fractionated by HPLC and the bioefficacy of the fractions was tested in vitro. Some components of the most fungicidal fraction were identified by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry as saponins: sapindoside B (accounting for ≥ 98% of the total constituents), hederagenin-pentosylhexoside, and oleanolic acid-hexosyl-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside. This fraction inhibited the mycelial growth of V. inaequalis and B. cinerea by 45% and 43%, respectively.