Laser joining of titanium alloy to polyamide: influence of process parameters on the joint strength and quality
A. Al-Sayyad, P. Lama, J. Bardon, P. Hirchenhahn, L. Houssiau, and P. Plapper
International journal of advanced manufacturing technology, vol. 107, no. 5-6, p. 2917-2925, 2020
Laser-assisted metal-polymer joining (LAMP) is a novel assembly process for the development of miniaturized joints in hybrid lightweight products. This work adopts a design of experiments (DoE) approach to investigate the influence of several laser welding parameters on the strength and quality of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)-polyamide (PA6.6) assembly. Significant parameters were highlighted using the Plackett Burmann design, and process window was outlined using the Response Surface Method (RSM). A statistically reliable mathematical model was generated to describe the relation between highlighted welding parameters and joint strength. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) method was implemented to identify significant parametric interactions. Results show the prominence of focal position and laser power, as well as significant interaction between laser power and beam speed, on the joint strength. The evolution of weld defects (bubbles, excessive penetration, flashing, titanium coloring, weld pool cavities, and welding-induced deflection) along the process window was investigated using optical microscopy. The resulted deflection in titanium was quantified, and its relationship with welding parameters was mathematically modeled. Robust process window was outlined to maintain insignificant deflection in the welded joints. Results showed that the growth of weld defects correlates with a decline in joint strength. Optimal parameters demonstrated a defect-free joint, maximizing joint strength.