The effects of salt stress cause a diversion of basal metabolism in barley roots: Possible different roles for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase isoforms
M. Cardi, D. Castiglia, M. Ferrara, G. Guerriero, M. Chiurazzi, and S. Esposito
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 86, pp. 44-54, 2015
In this study the effects of salt stress and nitrogen assimilation have been investigated in roots of hydroponically-grown barley plants exposed to 150 mM NaCl, in presence or absence of ammonium as the sole nitrogen source.Salt stress determines a diversion of root metabolism towards the synthesis of osmolytes, such as glycine betaine and proline, and increased levels of reduced glutathione. The metabolic changes triggered by salt stress result in a decrease in both activities and protein abundance of key enzymes, namely GOGAT and PEP carboxylase, and in a slight increase in HSP70. These variations would enhance the requirement for reductants supplied by the OPPP, consistently with the observed increase in total G6PDH activity.The involvement and occurrence of the different G6PDH isoforms have been investigated, and the kinetic properties of partially purified cytosolic and plastidial G6PDHs determined. Bioinformatic analyses examining co-expression profiles of G6PDHs in Arabidopsis and barley corroborate the data presented.Moreover, the gene coding for the root P2-G6PDH isoform was fully sequenced; the biochemical properties of the corresponding protein were examined experimentally.The results are discussed in the light of the possible distinct roles and regulation of the different G6PDH isoforms during salt stress in barley roots.