Handling wine pomace: The importance of drying to preserve phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity for product valorization
J. Corte-Real, A. Archaimbault, T. Schleeh, E. Cocco, M. Herrmann, C. Guignard, J.-F. Hausman, M. Iken, and S. Legay
Journal of Food Science, doi:10.1111/1750-3841.15652, 2021
Four different wine grape pomaces (GP) (Vitis vinifera) varieties, Auxerrois, Pinot Blanc, Gamay and Pinot Noir, and obtained from white, rosé or red wine vinification, were considered for possible valorization in food supplement industry. Stabilization of GP by drying is paramount prior to further processing in the valorization chain, as GP might suffer spoilage over time. The objectives of this work were therefore to: evaluate the effect of microbiological spoilage and drying on the polyphenol profile and antioxidant capacity of GP; define a drying procedure by comparing kinetics of freeze-drying (FD) and vacuum oven (VO) (at 60 °C and 40 °C). Microbiological spoilage led to significant losses (P < 0.01) of antioxidant capacity (40% to 87%) and total phenolic content (70% to 90%), while drying had no significant effect. FD and VO at 60 °C drying kinetics exhibited similar drying curves, and a dry weight (DW) plateau was reached by 48 hr. In contrast VO at 40 °C required 170 hr to reach similar DW values, pointing out the importance of temperature when opting for VO technology. Antioxidant capacity of GP extracts did not differ between drying methods. Interestingly, GPs from white and rosé wines (AUX, PB, and GAM) had up to 3.5 times higher content (P < 0.001) of total polyphenols compared to PN, obtained from red wine. These results reinforce the importance of drying of GP as a pretreatment, which otherwise could result in significant product degradation. Additionally, we propose white and rosé GP as more interesting sources for valorization, with higher phenolic content, compared to red wine GP.