Facilitating Privacy-preserving Recommendation-as-a-Service with Machine Learning
J. Wang, A. Arriaga, Q. Tang, and P.Y.A. Ryan
in the Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS'18), Toronto, Canada, 15-19 October 2018, ISBN:978-1-4503-5693-0, pp. 2306-2308, 2018
Machine-Learning-as-a-Service has become increasingly popular, with Recommendation-as-a-Service as one of the representative examples. In such services, providing privacy protection for the users is an important topic. Reviewing privacy-preserving solutions which were proposed in the past decade, privacy and machine learning are often seen as two competing goals at stake. Though improving cryptographic primitives (e.g., secure multi-party computation (SMC) or homomorphic encryption (HE)) or devising sophisticated secure protocols has made a remarkable achievement, but in conjunction with state-of-the-art recommender systems often yields far-from-practical solutions.
We tackle this problem from the direction of machine learning. We aim to design crypto-friendly recommendation algorithms, thus to obtain efficient solutions by directly using existing cryptographic tools. In particular, we propose an HE-friendly recommender system, referred to as CryptoRec, which (1) decouples user features from latent feature space, avoiding training the recommendation model on encrypted data; (2) only relies on addition and multiplication operations, making the model straightforwardly compatible with HE schemes. The properties turn recommendation computations into a simple matrix-multiplication operation. To further improve efficiency, we introduce a sparse-quantization-reuse method which reduces the recommendation-computation time by 9x (compared to using CryptoRec directly), without compromising the accuracy.
We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of CryptoRec on three real-world datasets. CryptoRec allows a server to estimate a user's preferences on thousands of items within a few seconds on a single PC, with the user's data homomorphically encrypted, while its prediction accuracy is still competitive with state-of-the-art recommender systems computing over clear data. Our solution enables Recommendation-as-a-Service on large datasets in a nearly real-time (seconds) level.