Microfibrillated cellulose from Argania spinosa shells as sustainable solid particles for O/W Pickering emulsions
M. Bouhoute, N. Taarji, L.D. Felipe, Y. Habibi, I. Kobayashi, M. Zahar, H. Isoda, M. Nakajima, and M.A. Neves
Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 251, art. no. 116990, 2021
Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) from Argan (Argania spinosa) shells was prepared by chemical purification of cellulose, then mechanical disintegration via high pressure homogenization was performed to isolate fibrils of cellulose. Chemical characterization of raw argan shell (AS-R), purified cellulose (AS-C), and argan shell MFC (AS-MFC) included FT-IR, XRD and NMR. Morphological characterization of AS-MFC was assessed using TEM. Next, the use of AS-MFC as oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilizer was investigated. The particle concentration was observed to affect the long-term stability of the emulsions; high concentrations (0.5-1 % w/w) of AS-MFC resulted in emulsions that were thermodynamically stable during 15 days of storage, which was demonstrated by the droplet's size evolution. The suitable oil concentration for a maximum volume of emulsion using 1 % w/w AS-MFC was demonstrated. The results show that AS-MFC is able to stabilize 70 % w/w MCT oil without visual phase separation. Finally, CLSM shows the adsorption of AS-MFC at the oil-water interface and the formation of a 3D network surrounding oil droplets, confirming Pickering emulsion formation and stabilization.